Overview and Word Order

Toma Heylm is an SVO language in the nominative-accusative paradigm in which nouns take case prefixes or suffixes (depending on the case); verbs take suffixes to agree in number or gender with subjects but have auxiliaries for tense, aspect, and mood; adjectives follow the noun, but determiners precede it, including numbers; adverbs follow the verb, but auxiliaries precede it; nouns have gender, which is marked on adjectives that modify them or verbs for which they are the subject, if present; and adpositional phrases are prepositional.

Clause structure coming soon.

Nouns in Toma Heylm

Nouns in Toma Heylm are gendered, with the genders being female and male. Gender is not apparent from looking at the word, so it must be memorized.

There are seven cases:

Prefix/suffix Examples
Nominative [none] shadow - edior world - dampe
Accusative -u, -yu edioru dampeyu
Genitive -i, -yi ediori dampeyi
Dative a-, ay- ayedior adampe
Instrumental o-, oy- oyedior odampe
Locative uy-, yu- uyedior yudampe
Causative hi-, iy- iyedior hidampe

Determiners used to show definiteness or number in nouns are syin, nes, and tam, which are singular, dual, and plural, respectively.

mind - a book
syin mind - the book, one book
nes mind - two books
tam mind - the books
syin edior tam mindi - the shadow of the books

Pronouns in Toma Heylm

Pronouns are fully conjugated in all cases, plus a reflexive form. They have some dual forms and some gendered forms, but neither is universal. The first person dual is an inclusive dual only ("you and me"), with exclusive dual being represented by the plural form.

First person Second person Third person
Singular Dual Plural Singular Plural Singular Dual Plural
Male Female
Nominative eff fhi hel lo lhi sem syim sheym elyi
Accusative lifa rhi myol lyem astye seli
Reflexive efel fine helye lor lis ise isit shye lel
Genitive efim fyim heylm ilom lyim semi simil shemi elyim
Dative tef tyel tilo tilyi tise tishye
Instrumental ohayef oheli ohelo ohili ohesem oheym
Locative yuhayef yuheli